What is Kung Fu?

Kung fu is not one system of fighting but rather a term that has come to be translated as ‘Chinese martial arts’.

It encompasses many forms of combat including external and internal ones, and has roots in the country that can be traced back at least 1,500 years.

Talk the Talk

The term ‘Shaolin’ is often translated as meaning ‘young/new forest’, as taught by 20th century Tai Chi master Chang Dsu Yao.

However this translation has been deemed incorrect by Scholars, who now state the ‘Shao’ refers to Mount Shaoshi where the original temple was built; though ‘lin’ does mean forest.

The History of Kung Fu

Kung fu (also known as gong fu) is, contrary to popular belief, not a martial art in of itself but has come to mean ‘Chinese Martial Arts’ in Western societies.

The correct meaning however is any skill that is learned through hard work and practice, or more literally it can be said to mean ‘human achievement’.

That said, the term kung fu is easily recognisable and is therefore a useful term for the Westerner as an umbrella phrase used to describe the various fighting systems to come out of China, especially those that derive from the Shaolin and other temples.

The term first appeared in the West in its modern context in the 18th century when it was used by the French Jesuit missionary Jean Joseph Marie Amiot. However it did not become a widely used phrase until the 1960s, when it was popularized by Bruce Lee and his kung fu fighting films; prior to this, the term ‘Chinese Boxing’ was a more common way to describe martial arts from the country.


Tracing the History of Kung Fu

As is the case with many world martial arts, tracing the history of kung fu is difficult as for many years, people outside of the military were forbidden to learn it on pain of death. As a result, much of the teachings were never written down and a considerable amount of what was recorded has been lost or destroyed over the centuries.

The importance of the teachings of the Shaolin monks in the Henan Province cannot be overstated as it was here that anything resembling modern Chinese martial arts was started. It is claimed that a fighting system was developed there as a direct result of the teachings of an Indian Buddhist monk called Bodhidharma (pictured above), who taught the monks there a set of Yogic movements to help improve their general fitness and wellbeing.

Over the years, different systems emerged from various parts of the county that have resulted in a rich tapestry of styles that developed in different ways depending on the needs of the people in a particular time and place. Different philosophies, weapons and movements are utilized but all can be said to be kung fu; be it in the Western or the literal interpretation of the words as all are disciplines that demand constant practice over a lifetime if one has any hope of becoming a master.


Further Reading

About Kung Fu. [Internet]. 2013. Case Western Reserve University. Available from: http://filer.case.edu/org/casekungfu/kungfu.html [Accessed March 1, 2013].

Kung Fu (Term). [Internet]. 2013. Princeton University. Available from: http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Kung_fu_%28term%29.html [Accessed March 1, 2013].

Shaolin History.  [Internet]. 2008. Shaolin Gung Fu Institute. Available from: http://www.shaolin.com/historycontent.aspx [Accessed March 1, 2013].

 More Kung Fu History

Bodhidharma

Bodhidharma is given credit for founding modern day Chinese martial arts after visiting the Shaolin Temple in the sixth century. It is said he taught various exercises to the monks there, laying the seeds for the fighting systems that are today collectively known as Kung Fu......Read Article
The Early History of Shaolin Kung Fu

A look at how the the history of Shaolin Kung Fu expanded and grew between 527 and 1644. It is believed that many styles of Chinese martial arts have their origins in this period, which also saw the spread of the teachings of the Shaolin monks to temples in other regions.....Read Article
The Shaolin in the Modern Era

The history of the Shaolin in the modern era has not been an easy one. The practice of Chinese martial arts was banned for much of the period and the monks considered enemies of the state because of their political ideologies and later their religious beliefs.....Read Article
Pak Mei – A Kung Fu Legend

Pak Mei was one of the famous Five Elders of Shaolin kung fu who developed the fighting system that would take his name. The system is a lethal combination of fighting techniques that combine the explosive power of the tiger with the dynamic speed of the leopard.....Read Article
Ving Tsun Kung Fu

According to legend, after the burning of the Shaolin Temple in the 17th century one of the surviving Five Elders, Ng Mui, taught kung fu to a woman called Yim Ving Tsun. From this union, Ving Tsun (Wing Chun) kung fu was developed and passed down from one generation to the next.....Read Article
 
 

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