What is Aikido?
Aikido has its roots in the martial arts practiced by the samurai of medieval Japan and more directly in the art of jujitsu.
It was developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a method of self defence and as a way of life designed to uplift the practitioner by building character and moral fibre.
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Morihei Ueshiba decided on the name aikido for his new martial art in 1942.
Prior to this, it was known as aikibudo and aikinomichi.
The History of Aikido
Aikido teaches practitioners, known as aikidoka, to have a deep sense of harmony with all creation. This includes a would-be attacker, so as a result there are no attacking movements practiced within the art.
Instead, students of aikido are taught to subdue their opponent, bringing him under control while inflicting the least amount of injury in the process.
To do this, the aikidoka flows with the power and energy of an attack and returns it to its source through good technique, posture and balance. This is achieved through the use of many circular and spherical movements designed to redirect opposing forces towards a less harmful direction.
The main principles behind the moves are avoidance, control and neutralisation and students are taught to practice with a calm mind, a relaxed body and integrated breathing to allow the moves to flow gracefully. When training, students are encouraged to treat each other as partners even when one is acting as the attacker and the other practicing the defensive moves. This generates an atmosphere of harmony and cooperation rather than one of competitiveness.
Morihei Ueshiba – Founder of Aikido
Morihei Ueshiba was born in Japan in 1883 and as a boy, witnessed his father being assaulted by local thugs on numerus occasions. He vowed revenge and dedicated himself to becoming a great fighter and by adulthood, was an accomplished martial artist and an expert in jujitsu as well as the use of the sword, spear and staff.
However, by the time he was grown he was also a very spiritual man and became conflicted on the contradiction of hurting others, even within the confines of martial arts training etiquette, and his belief in being harmonious with all of nature.
Ueshiba followed the teachings of Omotokyo, a so-called ‘new religion’ that is part neo-Shintoism, and part socio-political idealism and teaches the core concept of the unification of all of mankind in a single "heavenly kingdom on earth." He came to believe that winning at another’s expense was not really a victory and spent many hours in meditation and intense study contemplating this problem.
From the mid-1920s, he set out to find movements within the martial arts that would allow him to subdue his opponents without hurting them and compiled them to form a new art that would become known as aikido (The Way of Harmonious Spirit).
Put basically, aikido is a combination of the joint locks and throws from jujitsu combined with the body movements taught in sword and spear fighting. However, this is an oversimplification and it should also be stated that some of the techniques were invented by Ueshiba himself.
Ueshiba, who is usually referred to as "O’ Sensei" (Great Teacher), spent the rest of his life refining the art to make it accessible to students who were new to martial arts and to those with experience with other forms of fighting while making it deep enough to allow students to continue learning even after many years of training.
From the 1950s, aikido’s popularity grew due to schools founded by some of Ueshiba’s best students, most notably Koichi Tohei, Gozo Shioda, Minoru Mochizuki, Kenji Tomiki, and Kisshomaru Ueshiba. Today there are five major styles of the art that are collectively practiced by millions of people across the world, all of which can trace their roots back to the aforementioned aikido masters.
Further Reading:Aikido – The Way of Harmony. [Internet]. 2018. Stanford University. Available from: http://aikido.stanford.edu/what [Accessed July 19, 2018].
Eric Sotnak. [Internet] 2018. Aikido Primer. Aikido Karoo. Available from: http://www.aikido.karoo.net/Aikidoprimer.html [Accessed July 19, 2018].
Eric Sotnak. [Internet]. 2018. The History of Aikido. MIT University. Available From: https://aikido.mit.edu/history-aikido [Accessed July 19, 2018].
Harvard Aikikai. [Internet]. 2011. Harvard University. Available from: http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/~aikido/02AIKIDO/AIKIDO.htm [Accessed July 19, 2018].
History of Yoshinkan Aikido. [Internet]. 2018. Makotokan. Available from: http://www.makotokan.com/gpage.html [Accessed July 19, 2018].
Stanley A. Pranin. [Internet]. 1996. Aikido Today: An Overview. OMLC. Available from: https://omlc.org/aikido/talk/overview.html [Accessed July 19, 2018].
More Aikido History
The Five Main Styles of Aikido
Developed in the first half of the twentieth century by Morihei Ueshiba, aikido is a way of fighting designed to help build moral fibre in its participants. Today, there are five main stiles of the art practiced, all of which vary in training methods, techniques used and on how much emphasis is put on the ideologies taught within aikido…..Read Article