Talk the Talk

Kata is practiced in most karate styles along with other Japanese fighting arts such as judo, aikido and kendo though many of the Shotokan kata originate from Chinese martial arts. 

 The word roughly translates to Form and denotes a set routine of movements of varying difficulty designed to practice all aspects of the art and can be executed alone or as a team moving simultaneously.

Walk the Walk

In many styles of karate, low stances and exaggerated arm and leg movements are employed when executing the techniques making them seem unproductive to the untrained observer.

However the basic moves and stances used in styles like Shotokan are in of themselves a training method designed to strengthen the body.

As an example, the idea is that if you can train for a long period in low stances, in a situation when you need to defend yourself in a normal fighting stance, there is little chance your legs will become tired.

Karate Quote

“In the past, it was expected that about three years were required to learn a single kata, and usually even an expert of considerable skill would only know three, or at most five kata.”

~ Gichin Funakoshi ~

The Reading Corner

The Birth of the Samurai ~ The Development of a Warrior Elite in Early Japanese Society.

 The History of the Shotokan Kata – Part One

The History of Kihon Kata

Kihon Kata (Basic Form) is, as the name suggests, the most basic of all the Shotokan kata consisting of just two techniques, gedan barai (lower block) and oi tsuki (lunge punch).

Also known as Taikyoku Shodan, it was invented by Sensei Gichin Funakoshi and intended to be an easy introduction to kata and karate itself.

Originally it was the first of a set of basic kata that Funakoshi introduced, though in modern Shotokan it’s usually the only one taught and in more recent years, kihon itself has disappeared from the syllabus of many schools.

Kihon Kata Video

The History of the Heian Kata

The Heian (Peaceful/Calm Mind) kata originated in Okinawa where they were known as the Pinan kata. While many styles still use the Okinawan name (which means the same), in Shotokan they are usually known as the Heian kata, a name change instigated by the style’s founder Gichin Funakoshi when he introduced karate to Japan in the 1920s.

The set of kata were probably developed from much older forms from Chinese martial arts known as Chiang Nan and/or Kushanku (Kanku Sho and Dai may also originate from these kata) and later developed by Okinawan Master Anko Itosu at the turn of the twentieth century.

According to legend, Itosu (or maybe his teacher Tode Sakugawa) was taught Chiang Nan (pronounced Channan in Japanese) from a Chinese diplomat and martial arts expert who lived in Okinawa called Kung Hsiang Chun. Though the original form is now lost, it is thought that it was extremely long so was divided up into five separate kata to make it easier to learn.

An alternative theory is that Itosu, who had taken the previously secretive martial art into the schools in Okinawa, found that children often had trouble learning the kata that were on the syllabus so he devised the Pinan kata group to aid this.

It is believed by some that he took moves from the Bassai and the Kanku sets in particular and arranged them so they gradually got more difficult through the various Pinan kata, allowing his younger students to progress from very basic moves to more advanced ones. 

The kata know today in the Shotokan syllabus as Heian Nidan was originally the first of the Heian kata and therefore known as Heian Shodan. However sometime in the 1930s, Gichin Funakoshi switched Nidan and Shodan around though some styles still practice them in the original order. However what Shotokan karate calls Heian Shodan is arguably a lot easier to learn than Nidan, which is probably why they were switched in the first place.

Heian Kata Videos

The History of the Tekki Kata

The Tekki (Iron Horse) kata were derived from a single long kata called Naihanchi (Internal Divided Conflict) which was a part of the Shuri-te and Tomari-te karate styles in Okinawa and was the most basic kata before the introduction of the Pinan (Heian) kata set.

Anko Itosu is credited with developing the Tekki kata, though while some believe he invented Tekki Nidan and Sandan independently of Naihanchi, the fact that only Tekki Shodan has a formal opening move may suggest that they were all based on the Okinawan form.

There is further debate amongst martial arts scholars about what the pattern of the Tekki kata means, all of which follow a simple straight line in kiba-dachi (horseback stance). Some believe this represents fighting in a confined space with your back against the wall, others state that they are intended to develop skills for fighting on a boat while others still maintain that they were intended to represent fighting on horseback.

However as the strength and skills developed through the Tekki kata would work for these and other situations, an outright definition is unnecessary as application of kata should work for the individual karateka as opposed to being an absolute.

Gichin Funakoshi considered them a very important part of the Shotokan syllabus and spent three years practicing each of the Tekki kata, believing them to be difficult to master despite the fact that they are relatively short.

Tekki Kata Videos

The History of the Bassai Kata

The Bassai (To Penetrate a Fortress) kata come in many different versions, varying from one style of karate to the next and in Shotokan, there are two of them, Bassai Dai (major/large) and Bassai Sho (minor/small). Known as Passai in Okinawa, their history is obscure but they are believed to be derived from very old forms from China, then developed in Okinawa.

A four hundred year old silk drawing is thought by some to depict an early version of Bassai Dai, whose origins some believe can be traced back to either Leopard and Lion kung fu forms or from Five Element Fist kung fu.

When the earlier form arrived in Okinawa, it was taught to Master Sokon Matsumura, probably by a man named Oyadomari Peichin. In turn, Matsumura taught it to Anko Itosu who is often credited with creating Bassai Sho from Passai sometime in the late nineteenth century.

The Bassai kata that are taught in Shotokan today are believed to have been designed to complement each other as the first, Bassai Dai, represents forcing your way into a fortress and the second, Bassai Sho, represents fighting your way out.

Bassai Kata Video

The History of Empi

There are three main scholastic theories on the origins of the kata Empi (Flight of the Swallow, also frequently transliterated as Enpi). The first is that it was brought to Okinawa in 1683 by a Chinese envoy named Wang Ji, an expert in Shaolin Fujian White Crane.

The second suggests it was brought to Okinawa in the late 14th century by a group of immigrants from China known as the Thirty-Six Families, who brought with them new systems of martial arts that were taught to a select few on the island that were deemed worthy.

The third popular theory on the origins of Empi suggest it was developed more recently on the island itself as the kata was previously known as Wanshu, a name that could have come as a result of it being dedicated or even created by an Okinawan karate master by the name of Suppashi Wanshu.

Whatever its origins, it is possible though far from universally accepted that one of the main moves in the kata, the rising punch, was based on a sword technique of the samurai warrior Sasaki Kojiro, who had a particular move that was said to resemble the flight of a swallow. Kojiro was considered to be the finest swordsman of his day until he was famously defeated and killed in a duel by the legendary samurai Miyamoto Musashi in 1612.

What we do know is that by the nineteenth century, Wanshu was being taught by Kosaku Matsumura of the Tomari-te style who passed it down to Sokon Matsumura and Anko Itosu; the versions they practiced however varied suggesting that they independently developed what they were taught. Itosu taught his version to his student Gichin Funakoshi who went on to introduce it to Japan in the 1920s, changing the name from Wanshu to Empi in the process.

Empi Kata Video

The History of Hangetsu

Hangetsu (Half Moon) came through the Naha-te school on Okinawa where it was known as Seishan (Thirteen). When the name was changed and by whom is unclear as in Gichin Funakoshi’s book, Ryukyu Kenpo Karate, it is listed under the name Seishan whereas others are listed under the new names he gave them. That said, he still may have been the one to make the change but did it later in his life.

It is believed that prior to being introduced to Okinawa, the kata has a very old origin and may even be the oldest of all the karate kata. One prevalent theory is that it came from a Chinese folk dance which aimed to explain the importance of the tides.

If this is the case, the name may be in reference to the thirteen day intervals as the moon revolves around the earth and its effect on the tides. However a more likely explanation is that it got its Okinawan name as a result of the fact there are thirteen moves in the kata (as long as you only count repeated techniques once).

Another theory on the origins of the kata Hangetsu is that it came from an old form practiced in Southern Chinese martial arts known as Four Gate Hands which is still practiced today in the Southern Praying Mantis Style. This seems more likely to be the case as the two training exercises are very similar though this may denote that they share a common ancestry within the history of the martial arts rather than one deriving from the other.

Hangetsu Kata Video

The History of the Kanku Kata

The Kanku (Looking into the Sky) kata is a set of two forms (Sho/minor and Dai/major) that are practiced by many styles including those of Japanese, Okinawa and Korean karate. Kanku Dai is the older of the two and was a particular favourite of Gichin Funakoshi, who used it extensively in demonstrations when he was in the process of introducing karate to Japan as he believed it held within it all the essential elements of karate.

Originally called Kushanku, Funakoshi renamed it in the 1930s as, according to his student, Masatoshi Nakayama, the new name reflected that the kata represented, amongst other things, modesty in karate.

Kushanku is thought to have been first introduced to Okinawa in the eighteenth century by a Chinese diplomat and kendo expert named Kung Hsiang Chun (pronounced Ku Shan Ku in the Okinawan dialect). He is thought to have passed it on to Tode Sakugawa of the Shuri-te school though an alternative theory is that it was Sakugawa who invented the kata and named it in honour of Kung Hsiang Chun.

The younger of the kata set, Kanku Sho, was probably invented in the nineteenth century by Sensei Anko Itosu. While, as is the case with the history of most of the Shotokan kata, there is no primary written evidence for this, it contains moves that are typical of kata that were developed by Itosu, such as double punches and moves that are designed to control and or disarm someone with a stick.

Kanku Kata Video

The History of Jion

Jion (Mercy) probably has its roots in Chinese boxing and according to the acclaimed Shotokan Master Hirokazu Kanazawa, it was invented in the Jion Temple by the Buddhist monks there who were accomplished martial artists. This is backed up not only by the name, but also the fact that it begins with the left hand covering the right fist, a starting posture often used in some kung fu styles.

It later spread to Okinawa where it became a part of the Tomari-te syllabus though some believe it was actually invented there by someone with a connection to the Jion temple.

Jion Kata Video

The History of Ji’in

The kata Ji’in (Inverted Mercy) is no longer a part of the Japanese Karate Association (JKA) syllabus and along with Wankan, was left out of the Best Karate book series by Masatoshi Nakayama, which is seen as a definitive guide to Shotokan kata. Despite this, Ji’in is still widely taught by many other Shotokan associations as it is believed that it still has a lot to offer students of karate.

Ji’in is often seen as a part of a kata group along with Jion and Jitte as they share the same starting position with the left hand covering the right fist. This may mean that Ji’in and Jitte share the same origins as Jion and come from the Chinese Jion Temple though this is mostly speculation as their origins are unknown.

As with many other kata, when Funakoshi introduced it to Japan he changed the name to Shokyo (Pine Shadow), however in this instance the new name did not stick and it was changed back to Ji’in.

Ji’in Kata Video

The History of Jitte

According to Masatoshi Nakayama in his book, Best Karate, Volume 7, the name Jitte (Ten Hands) implies that one must have the strength of ten men. However an alternative theory on the meaning of the name is that it comes from the raised fists hand position from within the kata, which can be said to look similar to a type of Sai known as a Jitte that was used by the police force on Okinawa during the nineteenth century.

Jitte may have its roots in China which is suggested by the starting position of the left hand covering the right fist, a posture often utilised in kung fu though it could have been invented on Okinawa and just influenced by what are now seen as its sister kata, Jion and Ji’in.

It was taught as a part of the Tomari-te syllabus and has elements of Gyaku-te grappling techniques. Its main function however is to teach the karateka to defend against weapons, especially the Bo Staff, while helping to develop pliable bones and muscles.

Jitte Kata Video

Further Reading:

Nakayama, M.  1981.  Best Karate, Volume 7.  Kodansha International.  Japan.

Shotokan Kata.  [Internet].  2013.  The Shotokan Way. Available From: [Accessed August 20, 2015].

Shotokan Kata.  [Internet].  2013.  UNH Shotokan Karate Club.  Available From:  [Accessed August 20, 2015].

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